Peseshet 2500 BC
Peseshet, who lived under the Fourth Dynasty (albeit a date to the Fifth Dynasty is also possible), is often credited with being the earliest known female physician in ancient Egypt. Her relevant title was “lady overseer of the female physicians.” She also had the titles king’s acquaintance, and overseer of funerary-priests of the king’s mother. She had a son Akhethetep, in whose mastaba at Giza her personal false door was found. On the false door is also depicted a man called Kanefer. He might be her husband.
She may have graduated midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais. The Hebrew Bible refers to midwives in Exodus 1,16: “And he (i.e. the king of Egypt) said: ‘When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women and see them upon the stools…’”
She graduated at medical school in Sais, the center of the medical sciences in the third millennium BC. She knew all the medical documents created in the past, she knew how to create medications, complete difficult surgeries and is recorded as having healed cancer of the womb using a mixture of fresh dactyls, bay leaves, and essence of the seashells.
I finally got to go to NIA! Hannah went with me. We were doing gratitude affirmations and mine was spot on. First, I got to dance and I almost did the whole hour (I sat out 2 songs.) Then I went to Panera and got a carrot lemonade, then I went to the lab and the lady only had to poke me once. We had no school, I took Hannah’s ride along paper to GWV Police and then Jack and I went on a walk.
Harriet hike at Westlands park.
My medical bracelet came in today too.
It started snowing Monday night and we found out that the movie for the DMNS teen night got switched. So, I went to the library and picked up The Breakfast Club and snacks for a movie night.
Bessie Coleman 1892-1926
Bessie Coleman soared across the sky as the first African American, and the first Native American woman pilot. Known for performing flying tricks, Coleman’s nicknames were; “Brave Bessie,” “Queen Bess,” and “The Only Race Aviatrix in the World.” Her goal was to encourage women and African Americans to reach their dreams.
Born in Atlanta, Texas on January 26, 1892, Bessie Coleman had twelve brothers and sisters. Her mother, Susan Coleman, was an African American maid, and her father George Coleman was a Native American sharecropper. Bessie grew up helping her mother pick cotton and wash laundry to earn extra money. By the time she was eighteen, she saved enough money to attend the Colored Agricultural and Normal University (now Langston University) in Langston, Oklahoma. She dropped out of college after only one semester because she could not afford to attend.
At age 23, Coleman went to live with her brothers in Chicago. She went to the Burnham School of Beauty Culture in 1915 and became a manicurist in a local barbershop. Meanwhile, her brothers served in the military during World War I and came home with stories from their time in France. Her brother John teased her because French women were allowed to learn how to fly airplanes and Bessie could not. This made Bessie want to become a pilot. She applied to many flight schools across the country, but no school would take her because she was both African American and a woman. Famous African American newspaper publisher, Robert Abbott told her to move to France where she could learn how to fly. She began taking French classes at night because her application to flight schools needed to be written in French.
Finally, Coleman was accepted at the Caudron Brothers’ School of Aviation in Le Crotoy, France. She received her international pilot’s license on June 15, 1921 from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Coleman’s dream was to own a plane and to open her own flight school. She gave speeches and showed films of her air tricks in churches, theaters, and schools to earn money. She refused to speak anywhere that was segregated or discriminated against African Americans. In 1922, she performed the first public flight by an African American woman. She was famous for doing “loop-the-loops” and making the shape of an “8” in an airplane.
Only two years into her flight career, Coleman survived her first major airplane accident. In February of 1923, her airplane engine suddenly stopped working and she crashed. She was badly hurt in the accident and suffered a broken leg, a few cracked ribs, and cuts on her face. Thankfully, Coleman was able to fully heal from her injuries. This accident did not stop her from flying. She went back to performing dangerous air tricks in 1925. Her hard work helped her to save up enough money to purchase her own plane, a Jenny – JN-4 with an OX-5 engine. Soon she returned to her hometown in Texas to perform for a large crowd. Because Texas was still segregated, the managers planned to create two separate entrances for African Americans and white people to get into the stadium. Coleman refused to perform unless there was only one gate for everyone to use. After many meetings, the managers agreed to have one gate, but people would still have to sit in segregated sections of the stadium. She agreed to perform and became famous for standing up for her beliefs.
On April 30, 1926, Bessie Coleman took a test flight with a mechanic named William Wills. Wills was piloting the plane, as Coleman sat in the passenger seat. At about 3,000 feet in the air, a loose wrench got stuck in the engine of the aircraft. Wills was no longer able to control the steering wheel and the plane flipped over. Unfortunately, Coleman was not wearing a seatbelt. Airplanes at the time did not have a roof or any protection. Coleman immediately fell out of the open plane and died. Her death was heartbreaking for thousands of people. Famous activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett performed the funeral service to honor Coleman in Chicago. In 1931, the Challenger Pilots’ Association of Chicago started a tradition of flying over Coleman’s grave every year. By 1977, African American women pilots formed the Bessie Coleman Aviators Club.
Snow! Eventually 17 inches of it. NREL closed, so James worked from home.
When the snow stopped James and I went on a very short Harriet hike, around the block, a lot of people hadn’t shoveled their sidewalks so we walked in the street.
Lola Baldwin 1860-1957
In 1908, Lola Baldwin became one of the first* sworn female full-time police officers in the United States. She dedicated her life to assisting troubled young women—spending years essentially as an unpaid social worker prior to her official police duties. Baldwin was required to pass the civil service exam after securing funding from the Portland mayor for a program to assist the city’s “straying daughters.” From 1908-1922, she supervised the Portland Police Department Women’s Protective Division and spent her remaining years as a strong advocate for female police officers.
Lola Greene was born in Elmira, New York in 1860 and attended an Episcopal school for girls in Rochester, New York. Her father died in 1877, causing Lola to quit high school to earn money. She taught school for a number of years in New York and Nebraska before marrying LeGrand Baldwin in 1884. Eventually, she stopped working to raise their two sons. Her experience with being on her own at an early age led Baldwin to volunteer work helping wayward girls. In 1904, her husband took a job in Portland and she began to volunteer at a local refuge for young, unwed mothers.
The next year Portland prepared for one of the biggest events in its history, the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. With more than a million visitors expected, the local Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) established a travelers’ aid program, in part to protect the influx of vulnerable young women from the inevitable con men, pimps, and other criminals who would also be attracted by the fair. Baldwin was paid 75 dollars a month for the duration of the fair and was given arrest authority. To enhance surveillance of the large fairgrounds, she recruited a small army of volunteers from Portland’s women’s clubs, thereby taking some of the pressure off of the city police department.
After the fair, Baldwin continued working without pay on sexual vice investigations involving young women. She organized the Portland Juvenile Court in 1905 and became its first probation officer for girls. Eventually, she proved her value to the city council and in 1908 it voted unanimously in favor of a women’s police ordinance. Later that year, Baldwin passed a city civil service exam and was sworn in as the nation’s first municipally paid police woman. She did not wear a uniform or badge, and she was housed in the YWCA building instead of police headquarters. Baldwin and her newly formed Women’s Protective Division soon went on a crusade against venues that she believed contributed to the exploitation of young women, including brothels, dance halls, vaudeville theaters, and nightclubs. A self-described “Municipal Mother,” Baldwin also believed that her gender imbued her with the nurturing skills and morality to prevent young women from turning to prostitution and to rehabilitate those who had already become prostitutes.
She was a committed suffragist who advocated for pay equity and a living wage as ways to keep young women workers from lives of prostitution or crime. Baldwin was a charter member of the Oregon Social Hygiene Society, which distributed information about sex education and venereal disease prevention. She was tapped by the federal government at the beginning of U.S. involvement in World War I to help keep prostitutes away from military bases throughout the West Coast and Arizona.
Baldwin retired from the Portland Police Department in 1922 but remained active as an advocate. She served several terms on the Oregon Parole Board and the National Board of Prisons and Prison Labor, and she traveled the country arguing favor of more women in police departments and for better protections for young women. Many of her ideas evolved into community and preventative policing ideas that continue to be practiced.
Wednesday there was a late start to NREL, so I took James to work, the roads were fine.
The girls and I went to lunch at Pho, then shopping at Ross. We got Jack a cute Christmas tie.
Our Harriet hike today was at Big Dry Creek park.