Monthly Archives: November 2019

Thanksgiving

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Sacagawea 1788-1812

Born circa 1788 in Lemhi County, Idaho. The daughter of a Shoshone chief, Sacagawea was a Shoshone interpreter best known for serving as a member of the Lewis and Clark expedition into the American West—and for being the only woman on the famous excursion. Much of Sacagawea’s life is a mystery. Around the age of 12, Sacagawea was captured by Hidatsa Indians, an enemy of the Shoshones. She was then sold to a French-Canadian trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau who made her one of his wives.

Sacagawea and her husband lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians in the upper Missouri River area (present-day North Dakota). In November 1804, an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark entered the area. Often called the Corps of Discovery, the Lewis and Clark Expedition planned to explore newly acquired western lands and find a route to the Pacific Ocean. The group built Fort Mandan, and elected to stay there for the winter.

Lewis and Clark met Charbonneau and quickly hired him to serve as an interpreter on their expedition. Even though she was pregnant with her first child, Sacagawea was chosen to accompany them on their mission. Lewis and Clark believed that her knowledge of the Shoshone language would help them later in their journey. In February 1805, Sacagawea gave birth to a son named Jean Baptiste Charbonneau. Despite traveling with a newborn child during the trek, Sacagawea proved to be helpful in many ways. She was skilled at finding edible plants. When a boat she was riding on capsized, she was able to save some of its cargo, including important documents and supplies. She also served as a symbol of peace — a group traveling with a woman and a child were treated with less suspicion than a group of men alone.

Sacagawea also made a miraculous discovery of her own during the trip west. When the corps encountered a group of Shoshone Indians, she soon realized that its leader was actually her brother Cameahwait. It was through her that the expedition was able to buy horses from the Shoshone to cross the Rocky Mountains. Despite this joyous family reunion, Sacagawea remained with the explorers for the trip west. After reaching the Pacific coast in November 1805, Sacagawea was allowed to cast her vote along with the other members of the expedition for where they would build a fort to stay for the winter. They built Fort Clatsop near present-day Astoria, Oregon, and they remained there until March of the following year.

Once Sacagawea left the expedition, the details of her life become more elusive. In 1809, it is believed that she and her husband — or just her husband, according to some accounts — traveled with their son to St. Louis to see Clark. Pomp was left in Clark’s care. Sacagawea gave birth to her second child, a daughter named Lisette, three years later. Only a few months after her daughter’s arrival, she reportedly died at Fort Manuel in what is now Kenel, South Dakota, around 1812. After Sacagawea’s death, Clark looked after her two children, and ultimately took custody of them both.

I am thankful that I got a lot of food prepped yesterday. That meant less standing and cooking today.

Thankful for laundry to do
Puppy hairs on the floor
A sink full of dishes
And butterfly kisses.

Thankful for learning at home
Walks in the snow
Date night with my love
And whatever licorice is made of.

Thankful for family
Both near and far
For friends to hang with
And life that’s a gift.

Thankful for no hospital stays
Warm blankets and cocoa
For a trusty blue van
And slightly crooked snowman.

Thankful for golden sunsets.
And clear rushing creeks
For a snow capped mountain view
Aspen trees and skies so blue.

Thankful for another day
For every breath to breathe
For joy, peace and love
And every good gift from above.

-L

Jack had his own little Thanksgiving dinner (and turkey off the table.)

Bethany gave us some early Christmas presents, here is another snowman for my collection (filled with candy and popcorn.) We went around the table saying what we were thankful for (no hospital stays hit the top of my list.) Hannah also gave each of us a note about why she was thankful for us.

Here is our beautiful autumn palette of food. Smoked turkey, then from the bottom going clockwise: Italian sausage cornbread dressing, sweet potato, corn and black bean salad, brown rice chutney with apricots, roasted cauliflower, raisins and almonds and Grace’s pistachio honey chili brussel sprouts. Pecan and pumpkin pie for dessert.

We hauled out the Christmas tree and stuff and decorated.

We fought over light color.

We went on a Harriet hike/Thankful walk by the Platte river.

Look at our wicked icicles on the house!

Joel called and we talked for a bit, he went over to a neighbor’s house for dinner and he went to the gun range. We had some pie, then everyone (except for me) went to Target to look around. They said it wasn’t very busy at all. We capped the night off with a Columbo.

Monday, snowstorm, Wednesday

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Peseshet 2500 BC

Peseshet, who lived under the Fourth Dynasty (albeit a date to the Fifth Dynasty is also possible), is often credited with being the earliest known female physician in ancient Egypt. Her relevant title was “lady overseer of the female physicians.” She also had the titles king’s acquaintance, and overseer of funerary-priests of the king’s mother. She had a son Akhethetep, in whose mastaba at Giza her personal false door was found. On the false door is also depicted a man called Kanefer. He might be her husband.

She may have graduated midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais. The Hebrew Bible refers to midwives in Exodus 1,16: “And he (i.e. the king of Egypt) said: ‘When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women and see them upon the stools…’”

She graduated at medical school in Sais, the center of the medical sciences in the third millennium BC. She knew all the medical documents created in the past, she knew how to create medications, complete difficult surgeries and is recorded as having healed cancer of the womb using a mixture of fresh dactyls, bay leaves, and essence of the seashells.

I finally got to go to NIA! Hannah went with me. We were doing gratitude affirmations and mine was spot on. First, I got to dance and I almost did the whole hour (I sat out 2 songs.) Then I went to Panera and got a carrot lemonade, then I went to the lab and the lady only had to poke me once. We had no school, I took Hannah’s ride along paper to GWV Police and then Jack and I went on a walk.

Harriet hike at Westlands park.

My medical bracelet came in today too.

It started snowing Monday night and we found out that the movie for the DMNS teen night got switched. So, I went to the library and picked up The Breakfast Club and snacks for a movie night.

#famouswomen

Bessie Coleman 1892-1926

Bessie Coleman soared across the sky as the first African American, and the first Native American woman pilot. Known for performing flying tricks, Coleman’s nicknames were; “Brave Bessie,” “Queen Bess,” and “The Only Race Aviatrix in the World.” Her goal was to encourage women and African Americans to reach their dreams.

Born in Atlanta, Texas on January 26, 1892, Bessie Coleman had twelve brothers and sisters. Her mother, Susan Coleman, was an African American maid, and her father George Coleman was a Native American sharecropper. Bessie grew up helping her mother pick cotton and wash laundry to earn extra money. By the time she was eighteen, she saved enough money to attend the Colored Agricultural and Normal University (now Langston University) in Langston, Oklahoma. She dropped out of college after only one semester because she could not afford to attend.

At age 23, Coleman went to live with her brothers in Chicago. She went to the Burnham School of Beauty Culture in 1915 and became a manicurist in a local barbershop. Meanwhile, her brothers served in the military during World War I and came home with stories from their time in France. Her brother John teased her because French women were allowed to learn how to fly airplanes and Bessie could not. This made Bessie want to become a pilot. She applied to many flight schools across the country, but no school would take her because she was both African American and a woman. Famous African American newspaper publisher, Robert Abbott told her to move to France where she could learn how to fly. She began taking French classes at night because her application to flight schools needed to be written in French.

Finally, Coleman was accepted at the Caudron Brothers’ School of Aviation in Le Crotoy, France. She received her international pilot’s license on June 15, 1921 from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Coleman’s dream was to own a plane and to open her own flight school. She gave speeches and showed films of her air tricks in churches, theaters, and schools to earn money. She refused to speak anywhere that was segregated or discriminated against African Americans. In 1922, she performed the first public flight by an African American woman. She was famous for doing “loop-the-loops” and making the shape of an “8” in an airplane.

Only two years into her flight career, Coleman survived her first major airplane accident. In February of 1923, her airplane engine suddenly stopped working and she crashed. She was badly hurt in the accident and suffered a broken leg, a few cracked ribs, and cuts on her face. Thankfully, Coleman was able to fully heal from her injuries. This accident did not stop her from flying. She went back to performing dangerous air tricks in 1925. Her hard work helped her to save up enough money to purchase her own plane, a Jenny – JN-4 with an OX-5 engine. Soon she returned to her hometown in Texas to perform for a large crowd. Because Texas was still segregated, the managers planned to create two separate entrances for African Americans and white people to get into the stadium. Coleman refused to perform unless there was only one gate for everyone to use. After many meetings, the managers agreed to have one gate, but people would still have to sit in segregated sections of the stadium. She agreed to perform and became famous for standing up for her beliefs.

On April 30, 1926, Bessie Coleman took a test flight with a mechanic named William Wills. Wills was piloting the plane, as Coleman sat in the passenger seat. At about 3,000 feet in the air, a loose wrench got stuck in the engine of the aircraft. Wills was no longer able to control the steering wheel and the plane flipped over. Unfortunately, Coleman was not wearing a seatbelt. Airplanes at the time did not have a roof or any protection. Coleman immediately fell out of the open plane and died. Her death was heartbreaking for thousands of people. Famous activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett performed the funeral service to honor Coleman in Chicago. In 1931, the Challenger Pilots’ Association of Chicago started a tradition of flying over Coleman’s grave every year. By 1977, African American women pilots formed the Bessie Coleman Aviators Club.

Snow! Eventually 17 inches of it. NREL closed, so James worked from home.

When the snow stopped James and I went on a very short Harriet hike, around the block, a lot of people hadn’t shoveled their sidewalks so we walked in the street.

#famouswomen

Lola Baldwin 1860-1957

In 1908, Lola Baldwin became one of the first* sworn female full-time police officers in the United States. She dedicated her life to assisting troubled young women—spending years essentially as an unpaid social worker prior to her official police duties. Baldwin was required to pass the civil service exam after securing funding from the Portland mayor for a program to assist the city’s “straying daughters.” From 1908-1922, she supervised the Portland Police Department Women’s Protective Division and spent her remaining years as a strong advocate for female police officers.

Lola Greene was born in Elmira, New York in 1860 and attended an Episcopal school for girls in Rochester, New York. Her father died in 1877, causing Lola to quit high school to earn money. She taught school for a number of years in New York and Nebraska before marrying LeGrand Baldwin in 1884. Eventually, she stopped working to raise their two sons. Her experience with being on her own at an early age led Baldwin to volunteer work helping wayward girls. In 1904, her husband took a job in Portland and she began to volunteer at a local refuge for young, unwed mothers.

The next year Portland prepared for one of the biggest events in its history, the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. With more than a million visitors expected, the local Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) established a travelers’ aid program, in part to protect the influx of vulnerable young women from the inevitable con men, pimps, and other criminals who would also be attracted by the fair. Baldwin was paid 75 dollars a month for the duration of the fair and was given arrest authority. To enhance surveillance of the large fairgrounds, she recruited a small army of volunteers from Portland’s women’s clubs, thereby taking some of the pressure off of the city police department.

After the fair, Baldwin continued working without pay on sexual vice investigations involving young women. She organized the Portland Juvenile Court in 1905 and became its first probation officer for girls. Eventually, she proved her value to the city council and in 1908 it voted unanimously in favor of a women’s police ordinance. Later that year, Baldwin passed a city civil service exam and was sworn in as the nation’s first municipally paid police woman. She did not wear a uniform or badge, and she was housed in the YWCA building instead of police headquarters. Baldwin and her newly formed Women’s Protective Division soon went on a crusade against venues that she believed contributed to the exploitation of young women, including brothels, dance halls, vaudeville theaters, and nightclubs. A self-described “Municipal Mother,” Baldwin also believed that her gender imbued her with the nurturing skills and morality to prevent young women from turning to prostitution and to rehabilitate those who had already become prostitutes.

She was a committed suffragist who advocated for pay equity and a living wage as ways to keep young women workers from lives of prostitution or crime. Baldwin was a charter member of the Oregon Social Hygiene Society, which distributed information about sex education and venereal disease prevention. She was tapped by the federal government at the beginning of U.S. involvement in World War I to help keep prostitutes away from military bases throughout the West Coast and Arizona.

Baldwin retired from the Portland Police Department in 1922 but remained active as an advocate. She served several terms on the Oregon Parole Board and the National Board of Prisons and Prison Labor, and she traveled the country arguing favor of more women in police departments and for better protections for young women. Many of her ideas evolved into community and preventative policing ideas that continue to be practiced.

Wednesday there was a late start to NREL, so I took James to work, the roads were fine.

The girls and I went to lunch at Pho, then shopping at Ross. We got Jack a cute Christmas tie.

Our Harriet hike today was at Big Dry Creek park.

Weekend

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Henrietta Lacks 1920-1951

Lab-grown human cells are invaluable to medical researchers. They allow scientists to better understand complex cells and theorize about diseases. The first “immortal” cell of its kind was created in 1951 at Johns Hopkins Hospital, its donor remaining unknown for years. But we now know that those cells belonged to Henrietta Lacks.

From southern Virginia, Henrietta was a black tobacco farmer who was diagnosed with cervical cancer at 30. Without her knowing, her tumor was sampled and sent to scientists at Johns Hopkins. Much to the scientists’ surprise, her cells never died. Henrietta’s immortal cells were integral in developing the polio vaccine, and were used for cloning, gene mapping, and in vitro fertilization.

For decades, the donor of these cells, which were code-named HeLa, remained anonymous. In the 1970s, Henrietta’s name was revealed and the origins of HeLa, a code for the first two letters in Henrietta and Lacks, became clear. While Henrietta Lacks may no longer be with us, her contribution to science is long lasting.

Saturday was busy. Bethany was in, Grace and Hannah had a lunch date Jack was supposed to decorate a cookie at Petsmart but then….we had to go to urgent care for me. I was dizzy but also when I would stand up my arms and legs would shake. This was worrying, I was hoping I wasn’t allergic to my new blood thinner. Turns out it (along with my other meds) was pushing my BP too low. I was 80/42 and apparently when you are that low your body shakes to get the blood flowing. I made it out of there while the sun was still shining, so we walked at the park.

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Edmonia Lewis 1843-1907

Little is known about the early life of mid-19th century sculptor Edmonia Lewis, but she was reportedly born on July 14, 1843–although that is up for debate as well. Lewis is considered the first woman sculptor of African American and Native American heritage.

She began her education in 1859 at Oberlin College in Ohio, where she was said to have been quite artistic, particularly in drawing. During her undergraduate years, she changed her name to Mary Edmonia, which she had been using anyway to sign her sculptures. While at Oberlin, Lewis was wrongly accused of theft and attempted murder. Though she was eventually acquitted, she was prohibited from graduating.
When she moved to Boston, she was mentored by sculptor Edward Brackett and began to develop her own artistic style. Her dual ancestry proved to be a source of much inspiration for her, as her early sculptures were medallions with portraits of white abolitionists and Civil War heroes.

“Forever Free” (1867), one of her best-known works, drew from the Emancipation Proclamation. In 1876, Lewis completed what is considered by many to be the pinnacle of her career: “The Death of Cleopatra”. This sculpture went against artistic traditions of the time by portraying a realistic illustration of the event, instead of using a sentimental manner.

Notes from church:

-When we sow seeds of generosity we reap the benefit of a generous life.
-Don’t slip into fearful thinking with a scarcity mindset.
-The antidote to fear – practice gratitude.
-The opposite of gratefulness is envy.


Goings on this week – no school, NIA!, blood draw, DMNS teen movie night, Riize volunteer, orthodontist, Walk2Connect, Thanksgiving, Union station Crawford hotel stay, Union station lighting, Christkindl market, Larimer square market, Englewood market, church, last day of Harriet hikes, working at church.

Dinners this week – something on Pearl st mall, make your own pizza, chicken tikka masala with rice and snap peas, chili and cornbread, Thanksgiving (smoked turkey, brown rice chutney, sweet potato salad, honey chili brussel sprouts, Italian sausage cornbread stuffing, pumpkin and pecan pies), dinner at Union station, leftovers.
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Sweet Potato Salad

4 medium sweet potatoes, peeled and chopped
1 onion, diced
1/2 tsp salt + optional pepper
3 tbsp oil, or spray
2 tsp minced garlic
1 1/2 tbsp lime juice
1 red bell pepper, diced
1 can black beans
1 cup can corn
3/4 cup fresh cilantro, chopped

Toss sweet potatoes and onions with 1 1/2 tbsp oil (or spray), sprinkle with salt and optional pepper, and place in one layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Place in a non-preheated oven on the center rack, then turn the oven to 450 F. Bake 30 minutes, or until potatoes are soft. Add all remaining ingredients to a large bowl, then toss with the sweet potatoes. Serve hot or cold
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Cilantro Mint Chutney Recipe

½ cup yogurt
3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
1 bunch cilantro, tender stems ok
1 cup mint leaves, packed ( 2 x .75 ounce packages)
1 medium jalapeno, sliced
2 teaspoons sliced ginger
1 garlic clove
¼–1/2 teaspoon kosher salt,
½ teaspoon sugar (or an alternative like honey, palm sugar, etc)
optional: 1 tablespoon water, or just enough to get blender going – you may not need this

Blend all ingredients in a blender or food processor until smooth. Taste and adjust salt and lemon.
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Brown rice chutney

1/4 C baby spinach
1 C cauliflower florets
2 C brown rice (cooked)
2 tablespoons coconut flakes
1/4 teaspoon ground turmeric
1/4 C apricot preserves
2 tablespoons golden raisins
1 small package sliced almonds

Cook rice, roast cauliflower. Add all ingredients in dish and stir. Add above cilantro mint chutney and serve warm.

Wed, Thur, Fri

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Alice Coachman 1923-2014

At the 1948 London Olympics, Alice Coachman won the high jump for the United States, becoming the first black woman to win an Olympic Gold medal. King George VI awarded her medal, and subsequently, President Harry S. Truman congratulated her at a White House ceremony. Coachman was also celebrated in a motorcade that traveled from Atlanta to her hometown of Albany, Georgia.

As a child, Coachman was forbidden from training at athletic fields with white people, which forced her to get creative: she would use ropes and sticks as high jumps, running barefoot. Despite these barriers, she was able to be the first black woman to win an Olympic medal and the first black person to receive an endorsement deal.

“If I had gone to the Games and failed, there wouldn’t be anyone to follow in my footsteps. It encouraged the rest of the women to work harder and fight harder,” Coachman told The New York Times in 1996. And indeed, she paved the way for African-American athletes like Wilma Rudolph, Evelyn Ashford, Florence Griffith Joyner, and many more.

Dog school.

We tried to go sit in on a court case, but the only open ones said ‘No children’ and this one looked like it had a case on the docket, but no one showed up. The clerk said to come earlier next time.

My Harriet hike was at the gym because I waited too long and it got dark and cold.

#famouswomen

Rosalind Franklin 1920-1958

Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born in London, England. Her family was well-to-do and both sides were very involved in social and public works. Rosalind was extremely intelligent and she knew by the age of 15 that she wanted to be a scientist. Her father actively discouraged her interest since it was very difficult for women to have such a career. However, with her excellent education from St. Paul’s Girls’ School, one of the few institutions at the time that taught physics and chemistry to girls, Franklin entered Cambridge University in 1938 to study chemistry.

Franklin’s next career move took her to Paris. An old friend introduced her to Marcel Mathieu who directed most of the research in France. He was impressed with Franklin’s work and offered her a job as a “chercheur” in the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l’Etat. Here she learned X-ray diffraction techniques from Jacques Mering.
In 1951, With her knowledge, Franklin was to set up and improve the X-ray crystallography unit at King’s College. Maurice Wilkins was already using X-ray crystallography to try to solve the DNA problem at King’s College. Franklin arrived while Wilkins was away and on his return, Wilkins assumed that she was hired to be his assistant. It was a bad start to a relationship that never got any better.

Working with a student, Raymond Gosling, Franklin was able to get two sets of high-resolution photos of crystallized DNA fibers. She used two different fibers of DNA, one more highly hydrated than the other. From this she deduced the basic dimensions of DNA strands, and that the phosphates were on the outside of what was probably a helical structure.
She presented her data at a lecture in King’s College at which James Watson was in attendance. Watson and Crick were at the Cavendish Laboratory and had been working on solving the DNA structure. Franklin did not know Watson and Crick as well as Wilkins did and never truly collaborated with them. It was Wilkins who showed Watson and Crick the X-ray data Franklin obtained. The data confirmed the 3-D structure that Watson and Crick had theorized for DNA. In 1953, both Wilkins and Franklin published papers on their X-ray data in the same Nature issue with Watson and Crick’s paper on the structure of DNA.

Franklin left Cambridge in 1953 and went to the Birkbeck lab to work on the structure of tobacco mosaic virus. She published a number of papers on the subject and she actually did a lot of the work while suffering from cancer. She died from cancer in 1958. In 1962, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins for solving the structure of DNA. The Nobel committee does not give posthumous prizes.

The girl went to a cooking class (pumpkin pasta, salad and homemade ranch dressing) so I took Jack for a Harriet hike along the Cherry creek trail, it was cold.

#famouswomen

Elizabeth Blackwell 1821-1910

The first woman in America to receive a medical degree, Elizabeth Blackwell championed the participation of women in the medical profession and ultimately opened her own medical college for women. Born near Bristol, England on February 3, 1821, Blackwell was the third of nine children of Hannah Lane and Samuel Blackwell, a sugar refiner, Quaker, and anti-slavery activist. Blackwell’s famous relatives included brother Henry, a well-known abolitionist and women’s suffrage supporter who married women’s rights activist Lucy Stone; Emily Blackwell, who followed her sister into medicine; and sister-in-law Antoinette Brown Blackwell, the first ordained female minister in a mainstream Protestant denomination.

In 1832, the Blackwell family moved to America, settling in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1838, Samuel Blackwell died, leaving the family penniless during a national financial crisis. Blackwell was inspired to pursue medicine by a dying friend who said her ordeal would have been better had she had a female physician. Most male physicians trained as apprentices to experienced doctors; there were few medical colleges and none that accepted women, though a few women also apprenticed and became unlicensed physicians.

While teaching, Blackwell boarded with the families of two southern physicians who mentored her. In 1847, she returned to Philadelphia, hoping that Quaker friends could assist her entrance into medical school. Rejected everywhere she applied, she was ultimately admitted to Geneva College in rural New York, however, her acceptance letter was intended as a practical joke.

Blackwell faced discrimination and obstacles in college: professors forced her to sit separately at lectures and often excluded her from labs; local townspeople shunned her as a “bad” woman for defying her gender role. Blackwell eventually earned the respect of professors and classmates, graduating first in her class in 1849. She continued her training at London and Paris hospitals, though doctors there relegated her to midwifery or nursing. She began to emphasize preventative care and personal hygiene, recognizing that male doctors often caused epidemics by failing to wash their hands between patients.

In 1851, Dr. Blackwell returned to New York City, where discrimination against female physicians meant few patients and difficulty practicing in hospitals and clinics. With help from Quaker friends, Blackwell opened a small clinic to treat poor women; in 1857, she opened the New York Infirmary for Women and Children with her sister Dr. Emily Blackwell and colleague Dr. Marie Zakrzewska. Its mission included providing positions for women physicians. During the Civil War, the Blackwell sisters trained nurses for Union hospitals.

In 1868, Blackwell opened a medical college in New York City. A year later, she placed her sister in charge and returned permanently to London, where in 1875, she became a professor of gynecology at the new London School of Medicine for Women. She also helped found the National Health Society and published several books, including an autobiography, Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women (1895).

Friday it snowed.

After school I took Jack to the HIgh line canal for a walk.

He was nappy after that.

TDO, food drive, symphony

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Mary McLeod Bethune 1875-1955

The daughter of former slaves, Mary Jane McLeod Bethune became one of the most important black educators, civil and women’s rights leaders and government officials of the twentieth century. The college she founded set educational standards for today’s black colleges, and her role as an advisor to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave African Americans an advocate in government.

Born on July 10, 1875 near Maysville, South Carolina, Bethune was one of the last of Samuel and Patsy McLeod’s seventeen children. After the Civil War, her mother worked for her former owner until she could buy the land on which the family grew cotton. By age nine, Bethune could pick 250 pounds of cotton a day.

Bethune benefited from efforts to educate African Americans after the war, graduating in 1894 from the Scotia Seminary, a boarding school in North Carolina. Bethune next attended Dwight Moody’s Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Chicago, Illinois. But with no church willing to sponsor her as a missionary, Bethune became an educator. While teaching in South Carolina, she married fellow teacher Albertus Bethune, with whom she had a son in 1899. In 1904 Bethune opened a boarding school, the Daytona Beach Literary and Industrial School for Training Negro Girls. Eventually, Bethune’s school became a college, merging with the all-male Cookman Institute to form Bethune-Cookman College in 1929. It issued its first degrees in 1943.

A champion of racial and gender equality, Bethune founded many organizations and led voter registration drives after women gained the vote in 1920, risking racist attacks. In 1924, she was elected president of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, and in 1935, she became the founding president of the National Council of Negro Women. A friend of Eleanor Roosevelt, in 1936, Bethune became the highest ranking African American woman in government when President Franklin Roosevelt named her director of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration, where she remained until 1944. She was also a leader of FDR’s unofficial “black cabinet.” In 1937 Bethune organized a conference on the Problems of the Negro and Negro Youth, and fought to end discrimination and lynching. In 1940, she became vice president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP), a position she held for the rest of her life. As a member of the advisory board that in 1942 created the Women’s Army Corps, Bethune ensured it was racially integrated. Appointed by President Harry S. Truman, Bethune was the only woman of color at the founding conference of the United Nations in 1945. She regularly wrote for the leading African American newspapers, the Pittsburgh Courier and the Chicago Defender.

Additionally, Bethune was a businesswoman who co-owned a Daytona, Florida resort and co-founded the Central Life Insurance Company of Tampa. In her “Last Will and Testament,” which was a penned reflection on her life, she wrote, “I leave you a thirst for education. Knowledge is the prime need of the hour.”

After school I took Jack with me to Castle Rock for shopping at the Emporium and a Harriet hike around the park. We found some dog cookies on one of the Christmas trees, WagnWash hosted the tree and gave away the cookies (great idea.)

At 5 we went over to King Soopers to host a food drive for a local food bank. One other family showed up to help. At first there was nothing in the basket, but after an hour the basket was full to the brim. We didn’t do as well the 2nd hour (5-6pm seems to be prime time.) One guy came out and put bag after bag in the basket, a Soopers worker gave us $3 and we bought some rice with that. I timed the date well because the food bank is only open on Tuesdays, so everything will get dropped off tomorrow.

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Margaret Jacobs

Jacobs, a Mohawk recipient of the Harpo Foundation’s prestigious Native American Residency Fellowship, is one of the only artists on this list who works almost exclusively in one style: abstract metal sculpture. Her works are emotive and sharp, edged with knowledge and heavy with history — but they’re not violent or threatening.

She uses contemporary alloyed materials, including steel and pewter, to question how cultures adapt to the art world, Jacobs told Mic. This use of steel is particularly layered with meaning; it references not only strength and resistance, but the weight of culture and the famed Mohawk Ironworkers (Today, there are about 200 Mohawk ironworkers working in the New York area, out of 2,000 structural ironworkers, according to the union. Most still travel home to Canada on weekends. In 1949, New Yorker writer Joseph Mitchell described Mohawks as “the most footloose Indians,” “Virtually every skyscraper … has been built by Mohawk and other Iroquois ironworkers including the new Time Warner building…Rockefeller Center, Empire State building, Chrysler, all these skyscrapers, virtually all the bridges,” said Robert Venables, a historian and former Director of Cornell University’s American Indian studies program.)

When asked about the way her work reflects the relationship between Natives and the United States, Jacobs said, “There is such a complex relationship between Natives and the U.S. and I think that for survival we have to figure out how to adapt to a contemporary world without losing the essence of culture and meaning. This is one of the major ideas that I am exploring in my work.”

Tuesday –

Things you can’t do on blood thinners.

-use a razor
-brush your teeth too hard
-say ‘Bloody hell! (unless you’re Australian)
-do dangerous things (ice skating, skiing, juggling knives)
-hike in places without cell service <—-I do this all the time, hey some places just can’t get a signal around here
-have surgery without contacting your special pharmacist
-get in an accident (really? That’s why they’re called ‘accidents’ not ‘on-purposes’)
-lie down for 30 minutes after you take the meds (I don’t know why about that one.)
-sit for too long, stand for too long
-eat kale (ok, that one I made up)

We did a bit of school then headed downtown to the Boettcher hall for the Colorado Symphony’s Beethoven’s birthday concert. It would be his 250th birthday and the concert had his music and some of his friends who might have attended his birthday bash. It was nice because we knew most of the music being played and we had great seats.

After the concert we went to Mango House to eat lunch. It’s a refugee assistance food hall/clinic/youth area/place to sell wares. We had sushi, African and Nepalese food and there were 2 or 3 more stalls that we didn’t try. It’s good food because it’s made by people from that country, the city set them up with a stall and Square (yay, credit!) I can’t wait to go back. We ran home, I dropped the girls off and went by the food bank and unloaded 20 bags of food. Then I made it to my doc appointment with 1 minute to spare. We went over general stuff, the CT scan, the meds and I now have a hematologist and medicine specialist added to my care team. They only thing that was blah was that if the DVT is not genetic, then it’s idiopathic (like my heart condition) and in that case I might be on blood thinners (pills not shots) for a long time. I dropped Hannah at Police Explorers (tonight’s topic – theft and robbery) and Jack and I did the rest of my Harriet hike at the park in Parker, in the dark.

 

Weekend

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Andrée de Jongh 1916-2007

Andrée de Jongh, aka Dédée, was the woman who formed the Comet line that helped Allied airmen get safely through occupied Belgium and France, over the Pyrenees, and into Spain and Gibraltar.

Her implausibility was what made her formidable. When the war started, Dédée de Jongh quit her job as a commercial artist and moved into her parents’ house in Brussels. Volunteering with the Belgian Red Cross, she began nursing wounded Allied soldiers. After her country surrendered to the Nazis in May 1940, after British troops were evacuated and the battle shifted to the air, de Jongh turned her attention to the men who had been shot out of the sky.

Before it was over, Dédée de Jongh would personally escort 118 people to freedom in Spain, and hundreds more would escape using the complex network of safe houses she had set up throughout Belgium and France. She pep-talked countless men over the mountains, including Jack Newton, who, depleted but grateful, was sent to Gibraltar and put on a boat home to his wife. Many of her helpers were ultimately arrested — including her sister, who was sent to a concentration camp, and her father, who was shot by a German firing squad.

De Jongh herself was caught harboring three airmen in a farmhouse at the foot of the Pyrenees in 1943. She endured 20 interrogations before finally confessing not just to being involved with the famous Comet line but to being its mastermind. Her German captors dismissed the idea outright. “Don’t be ridiculous,” they said. Sometime later, the Gestapo thought to question her further, but when they went looking among the emaciated pale souls packed into the Ravensbruck women’s concentration camp north of Berlin, they could not figure out which one was Dédée de Jongh.

After the war, she was decorated by King George VI and honored by the American and French governments. In Belgium, she was named a countess. She waved off most of the attention and strived instead for a purposeful sort of invisibility, spending 28 years nursing at a leper colony in the Belgian Congo and at an Ethiopian hospital.

Saturday James and I went to coffee (though I didn’t have coffee), then to Home Depot to get some new door knobs. Grace was dropped off for a party, Hannah was dropped off with a friend at the mall and Jack was vigilant for squirrels.

I was going to stop for my walk, but I was hungry and decided to go home first and eat. It’s a good thing I did. I wasn’t home for a minute before I had a sharp pain in my chest. It took my breath away. I sat down and there was another deeper kind of pressing pain under my right breast. My forehead felt icy cold and I was dizzy, which I have felt before (but thought it was a salt issue.) I looked at the clock and waited 5 minutes, then another 5, but it was still happening. James wasn’t home yet from dropping Hannah off, but he was close. As soon as he got home we got back in the car and went to the ER. I’m a frequent flyer there and because of my CHF anytime I go in for anything they whisk me back and start hooking up the EKG. They drew some blood and sent it off to the lab, meanwhile they checked the heart, it was fine. I was still having some pain, but not as bad. I was thinking it was stupid to go in and then the blood test came back abnormal for a certain thing – so they ordered a CT scan to check for blood clots. They kept asking me if my leg hurt or if I was having trouble breathing, if I had a cough, no, no, no. I didn’t think about it, but my leg did hurt the day before, I thought I pulled something in my calf during walking, but it didn’t hurt now, so I didn’t mention it. It took 3 nurses to put in a good IV, and in the end they used an ultrasound machine and it went in perfectly. Why don’t they it all the time? Not everyone is trained to use it and it does take longer to set, but then I’d have one hole in my arm and not four.

James had been running back and forth, picking up Hannah, dropping off Hannah at home, checking on Jack, coming back. By the time he got back I was out of the CT and waiting. I was shocked when the CT scan came back showing multiple and large blood clots in the left (not right where it was hurting) lung. They don’t think it just happened yesterday, I probably had one clot that time that I felt like this and then a few more from Friday when my leg hurt. I was started on belly shot blood thinners, twice a day for 5 days (then it goes to a pill.) I have to be careful not to cut myself because I’ll bleed all over the place. I do get a shiny medical alert bracelet (which I think I was supposed to be wearing anyway with CHF.) I’m so glad that this was found asap, I’m glad I didn’t go walking by myself today, I’m glad that nothing happened yesterday when I was off the beaten path. But mostly I’m glad that I didn’t get admitted to the hospital, my goal was to not go in this year (ER trips don’t count.)

Sunday

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Amelia Bloomer 1818-1894

Amelia Jenks Bloomer was an early suffragist, editor, and social activist. Bloomer was also a fashion advocate who worked to change women’s clothing styles.

Bloomer was born in Homer, New York. With only a few years of formal education, she started working as a teacher, educating students in her community. In 1840, she married David Bloomer and moved to Seneca Falls, New York. Bloomer quickly became active in the Seneca Falls political and social community. She joined a church and volunteered with the local temperance society. Noticing his wife’s fervor for social reform, David encouraged her to use writing as an outlet. As a result, she started a column which covered a plethora of topics.

In 1848, Bloomer went to the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention. The next year she created The Lily, a newspaper solely dedicated to women. At first, the newspaper only addressed the temperance movement, however due to demand the bi-weekly paper expanded to cover other news. After meeting activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Bloomer started to publish articles about the women’s rights movement. In 1849, Bloomer’s husband was elected Postmaster for Seneca Falls. He immediately appointed his wife as his assistant. Bloomer used her office as makeshift headquarters for the Seneca Fall’s women’s rights movement.

Bloomer’s most influential work was in dress reform. After noticing the health hazards and restrictive nature of corsets and dresses, Bloomer pushed for women to adopt a new style of dress. The pantaloons, now called Bloomers, not only illustrated a departure from the accepted dress for women, the garments also came to represent activists in the women’s rights movement. The style of dress attracted much ridicule from conservative men and women.

In 1851, Bloomer introduced Elizabeth Cady Stanton to Susan B. Anthony. The meeting set in motion a long-standing partnership between the two activists. In 1853, Bloomer and her husband moved West. While traveling she stopped in many towns and lectured about temperance. She attempted to keep The Lily going, however her move made publishing the paper harder. In 1854, Bloomer decided to sell the paper. Eventually, the couple settled in Council Bluff, Iowa. There, she called on women to become property owners. During the Civil War, Bloomer started the Soldier’s Aid Society of Council Bluffs to help Union soldiers.

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Grace took Hannah to church in the morning and James and I went to Aurora Kaiser to pick up my shots. Our pharmacy didn’t have them, but I had one shot at the hospital and as long as I got them today it was fine. If I wasn’t able I’d have to go back to the ER for the shot. Belly shots are no fun. They hurt, they leave a huge bruise, they sting and they get this hard bump around the shot. I also found that they bleed of anything moves past them, a towel, a shirt, Jack’s paw. So I put a bandaid on each dot. I have to do two shots a day for five days, so I’ll have lots of bandaids. After we got home we went on a short walk, I decided to break my walk in two. We did a half mile at Central park.

I picked up Hannah from church then went grocery shopping. I was tired when I got home, so I rested on the couch while James went to get a toilet kit to fix the downstairs toilet that had finally broken. We watched some TV, then went on another walk around Redstone park.

I actually did pretty good on miles.

Back at home I made vegetable soup and meatloaf and we binged on Jack Ryan.

This week – school, TDO (Castle Rock), Kindness Krewe (food drive), Colorado symphony – Beethoven, doc, Police explorers, water sampling, field trip (Courtroom), youth group, teen cooking at library, teen candy apples at library, Castle Rock starlighting, Riize, church.

Dinners this week – chicken apple sausage and sweet potatoes, crockpot chicken cacciatore and linguine, swiss mushroom chicken with asparagus and risotto, crockpot beef and broccoli over fried rice, cabbage rolls and mashed potatoes, leftovers.

Crockpot chicken cacciatore

2 lb. skin-on, bone-in chicken thighs
Kosher salt
Freshly ground black pepper
2 bell peppers, chopped
8 oz. baby Bella mushrooms, sliced
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 (28-oz.) can crushed tomatoes
1/2 C Chicken Broth
1 tsp. dried oregano
1/4 tsp. red pepper flakes
1/3 c. capers
8 oz. cooked linguine, for serving

Season chicken on both sides with salt and pepper and place in slow cooker. Add peppers, mushrooms, garlic, tomatoes, and broth, then season with oregano, red pepper flakes, salt, and pepper. Cover and cook on low for 6 to 8 hours or on high for 3 to 4 hours, until chicken is cooked through.
Remove chicken from slow-cooker and stir capers into sauce. Serve chicken over cooked pasta with sauce.

RiNo, Friday

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Yayoi Kusama 1929-

“A polka-dot has the form of the sun, which is a symbol of the energy of the whole world and our living life, and also the form of the moon, which is calm. Round, soft, colorful, senseless and unknowing. Polka-dots become movement … Polka dots are a way to infinity.”

Raised in Matsumoto, Kusama trained at the Kyoto School of Arts and Crafts in a traditional Japanese painting style called nihonga. Kusama was inspired, however, by American Abstract impressionism. She moved to New York City in 1958 and was a part of the New York avant-garde scene throughout the 1960s, especially in the pop-art movement.

Yayoi Kusama was a leader in the avant-garde movement soon after moving to the U.S. in her twenties and is said to have influenced artists such as Andy Warhol. She is also part of the minimalist and feminist art movements. Kusama is known for her red polka-dot art, a thought-provoking yet whimsical theme she has turned single-handedly into her own signature genre. She is known for her installation art, and she has turned everything from entire rooms to living tree trunks into red polka-dot canvasses. In 2008, one of her works sold at a Christies New York auction for $5.1 million a record for a living female artist at that time. Once you’ve seen her art, you really cannot forget it. Kusama is candid about her struggle with mental illness and lives in Japan at the Seiwa Hospital in Tokyo from where she commutes to her studio to produce art.

After school we headed to RiNo for lunch at Denver central market. After eating we walked to Visible’s interactive art/ad piece called Phonetopia.

It was like going inside of your phone from sliding the door to unlock the entrance to sliding into a pit of DM’s, pushing notifications out of the way and climbing over and under ropes to avoid notifications. In the game room Hannah won 3 things in the claw machine, we had tea and water in the airplane lounge and grabbed some free stuff (water bottle, pins, glass cleaner, pop socket) at the end. It was fun, free and I do like Visible’s logo (a smiley face.)

This is a pop-up ad, so it goes away on the 24th. We walked around to look at some of the graffiti and that was my Harriet hike for the day.

Back at home I took Jack out for a quick walk, then met James at Adelitas’s for dinner. It was tamale Thursday – $2 tamales. It was a TNO, but no one showed up – more tamales for me.

Friday

#famouswomen

(Elizabeth Cochran) Nellie Bly 1864-1922

As a young girl Elizabeth often was called “Pinky” because she so frequently wore that color. As she became a teenager she wanted to portray herself as more sophisticated, and so dropped the nickname and changed her surname to “Cochrane”. She attended boarding school for one term, but after her father’s death in 1870 or 1871, was forced to drop out due to lack of funds. In 1880, Cochrane’s mother moved her family to Pittsburgh. A newspaper column entitled “What Girls Are Good For” in the Pittsburgh Dispatch that reported that girls were principally for birthing children and keeping house prompted Elizabeth to write a response under the pseudonym “Lonely Orphan Girl”. The editor, George Madden, was impressed with her passion and ran an advertisement asking the author to identify herself. When Cochrane introduced herself to the editor, he offered her the opportunity to write a piece for the newspaper, again under the pseudonym “Lonely Orphan Girl”. Her first article for the Dispatch, entitled “The Girl Puzzle”, was about how divorce affected women. In it, she argued for reform of divorce laws. Madden was impressed again and offered her a full-time job and the pen name ‘Nellie Bly.’ Bly wrote eloquently about labor laws, women’s rights, and political corruption in Mexico.

Later, while working for The New York World, Bly had herself committed to a mental institution for 10 days to investigate the conditions. Her shocking report on the facility’s rotten food, vermin infestation, and horrific abuse of inmates led to public outcry and helped reform the care of the mentally ill.

In 1889, Bly had the newspaper send her on a race around the world inspired by Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days. With a tiny travel bag and one dress, Bly made her way by ship, train, horse, and rickshaw from England to Italy, Egypt to Singapore (where she bought a monkey). When she arrived home on January 25, 1890, Bly set the record for circumnavigating the world in 72 days. She later married and became an inventor, registering several patents under her name.

After school I dropped Hannah and Malia off at Target and Grace, Jack and I went to HS skate. Grace got a good 1.5 hours of skating in and I read my book (and Jack slept.)

When we got home I took Jack on our Harriet hike by the Platte river. Day 15 of Harriet hikes. I’ve walked 27.5 miles in 15 days. Since 11/1 I’ve had no soda/coffee/caffeine. Besides some almond milk in my cereal, water is my only drink. I’ve lost 7 lbs. All I intended to do was walk 30 min a day, that challenge was a good kick in the butt! (Of course the knee shots are helping too.)

After James got home we left for Englewood Grand to see Sam at her going away party. She’s moving to Alabama to live on a cotton farm near the coast with her flower shop owning boyfriend. It sounds like a great adventure.

Wednesday

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Margaret Knight (1838-1914)

Margaret Knight was an exceptionally prolific inventor in the late 19th century; journalists occasionally compared her to her better-known male contemporary Thomas Edison by nicknaming her “the lady Edison” or “a woman Edison.” Knight was born in York, Maine and was still a young girl when she began working in a textile mill in New Hampshire. After seeing a fellow worker injured by a faulty piece of equipment, Knight came up with her first invention: a safety device for textile looms. She was awarded her first patent in 1871, for a machine that cut, folded and glued flat-bottomed paper shopping bags, thus eliminating the need for workers to assemble them slowly by hand. Knight received 27 patents in her lifetime, for inventions including shoe-manufacturing machines, a “dress shield” to protect garments from perspiration stains, a rotary engine and an internal combustion engine.

(I posted this on FB, but I wanted it here too.) So, this is so weird. My brain doesn’t know what to do with the absence of pain. For 10 years I’ve been in pain (degenerative arthritis) 90% of the day, every day. From waking up (getting out of bed), stepping in and out of the tub, getting dressed (lately I’ve been putting my clothes on the floor so I don’t have to raise my knees to put on pants), going downstairs, standing, sitting, driving, hiking, dancing, swimming- it hurt. I was tired all the time because pain sucks your energy. It’s not even been a week since my knee shots and the fast reduction of pain from 90% of the time to none has fried my brain.

It’s like I’m on 20 cups of coffee (I’ve had no soda/coffee/caffeine since starting the Harriet hike challenge) ALL THE TIME. I am not tired, I am waking up early, I am walking everyday, but when I am still, my brain can’t comprehend the utter lack of movement because it doesn’t hurt to move, so I must move. I’m glad I’m not in chronic pain, but how long before my brain sees this as real or a new normal?

Jack and I dropped James at work and then went on a Harriet hike around Clear creek.

Then, home for school. Hannah got her upper palate expander and bottom retainer on this morning, she was not happy. We go back in 2 weeks and she gets some braces on the bottom teeth.

We had lunch, then went to the library for Creativity club. No one showed up, just us. Hannah read, Grace worked on some digital art and I made a collage.

Jack had been at Pupsgiving day camp at Petsmart all day and when I went to pick him up he was in a crate – he escaped the play room, again. But, he had fun playing with all the dogs (and it wears him out.) We got the worst picture from them, the pumpkin looks like it’s melting, someone added the wrong words to the picture and they are covering Jack.

Hannah made lasagna for dinner and after dropping her at youth group Jack and I went to walk around Aspen Grove and pick up James from the bus stop.

Pixar, jazz

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Eliza Burton “Lyda” Conley 1889-1946

In July of 1843, 664 Wyandotte Nation citizens were moved from Ohio to Kansas. While camped along the Missouri River, illness swept through the camps and 50 to 100 people died. Their bodies were carried across the river to the Kansas Territory, to a ridge which overlooked the Kansas and Missouri Rivers Huron Indian Cemetery was established to bury the bodies. A few years, the Wyandotte were granted the land including the ridge and used as a cemetery. By the 1890s, the Huron Indian Cemetery was prime land and developers, wanting to purchase the cemetery land, negotiated with the Wyandotte Nation in Oklahoma. In 1906, the Secretary of the Interior was instructed to sell the land with the remains to be moved to the Quindío Cemetery. Four years prior Eliza Burton “Lyda” Conley, a Wynandotte Nation tribal citizen and one of the first women attorneys- graduated from Kansas City School of Law in 1902 and became the first woman admitted to the Kansas bar.

The sale of the Wyandotte Nation’s sacred burial ground to the U.S. federal government in 1906 upset Eliza “Lyda” Conley, who was a member of the tribe. Her mother and ancestors were buried on the sacred ground. So she and sisters launched a campaign to protect and preserve the Huron Cemetery in Kansas City. They took up camp just outside the cemetery, nicknamed “Fort Conley”, padlocked the gate, took turns standing guard with muskets drawn, and put up signs that read “Trespass at Your Peril.”

Conley’s stood her ground for years. And in 1909, her fight to protect her tribe’s sacred land went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. That year, Conley put her legal skills to work and became the only third woman, the second female attorney, and the first Native American woman to argue a case in front of the Supreme Court. Many believe her case, in which she argued that Native American burial grounds were entitled to federal protection, was the first of its kind, too. Sadly, the Supreme Court dismissed Conley’s case. But nevertheless, she persisted. And in 1916, the cemetery was designated a federal park. Today, the cemetery—renamed Wyandot National Burial Ground—enjoys National Historic Landmark status. Conley was laid to rest in the cemetery following her death in 1946.

After school we went to the DMNS for the Pixar field trip. I think I’ve found the new best day/time for homeschool field trips – Tuesday afternoons after 1:30pm. We had the whole exhibit to ourselves. There were lots of hands-on things to do, make a stop motion video, build a character, look at the art, work the lighting, videos about working at Pixar.

The Extreme sports exhibit was also empty, the best thing in there was the ninja training course.

We could have spent more time walking around, but I needed to wear out Jack so the girls could watch him while James and I went on a LAPOMPE jazz date night. My Harriet hike was around the block and Marcy park.

Union station was all decorated.

We had a good time listening to jazz, enjoying drinks, then eating at The Kitchen (where I had a curry bowl that I’m making into a Thanksgiving side dish because it was so good.)

Veterans Day

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Today is Veterans today and since I have wayyyyy more famous women than there are days on November, here’s a two-fer. “General” Tubman did eventually receive a military pension of $20 a month (and so it’s fitting that she will be placed on the $20 bill, now estimating that to come to pass by 2028.)

IN 1863, Harriet Tubman led soldiers with Colonel James Montgomery to raid rice plantations along the Combahee River in South Carolina. They set fire to buildings, destroyed bridges, and freed many of the slaves on the plantations. When slaves saw Tubman’s ships with black Union soldiers on board, they ran towards them as their overseers helplessly demanded that they stay.

Tubman, who will replace President Andrew Jackson on the front of the $20 bill, is most known to Americans for leading hundreds of slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. But she also played a crucial and pioneering role in the Civil War. In addition to being the first woman in U.S. history to lead a military expedition, Tubman—whom John Brown called “General Tubman”—was a Union army spy and recruiter. The use of former slaves as spies was a covert operation—President Abraham Lincoln didn’t even tell the Secretary of War or the Secretary of Navy about it. The man in charge of the secret spy ring was Secretary of State William Seward, who’d met Tubman when his house was a stop on the Underground Railroad.

Venturing into Confederate territory, these spies would gather information from slaves about Confederate plans. Allen says, for instance, that slaves would tell spies where Confederate troops had dropped barrels filled with gunpowder into rivers to attack Union boats. Information gained from these spies became known as “black dispatches.” It was brave for any ex-slave to venture into Confederate territory (these people were not legally “free”; they were still fugitives under the law). And it was especially brave for Tubman to do so, since she was well-known as an abolitionist.

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Col. Ruby Bradley World War II and Korean War A survivor of two wars, a prison camp and near starvation, Colonel Ruby Bradley is one of the most decorated women in U.S. military history. Her military record included 34 medals and citations of bravery, including two Legion of Merit medals, two Bronze stars, two Presidential Emblems, the World War II Victory Medal and the U.N. Service Medal. She was also the recipient of the Florence Nightingale Medal, the Red Cross’ highest international honor. West Virginia native Ruby Bradley joined the U.S. Army Nurse Corps as a surgical nurse in 1934. In 1941, she was taken captive by Japanese forces while serving in the Philippines. She and fellow imprisoned nurses continued to care for their fellow prisoners, earning them the nickname “angels in fatigues.”

During her 37 months in captivity, Bradley assisted in 230 major operations and the delivery of 13 babies. “A lot of people died in the last few months,” she told the Washington Post in 1983. “There were several deaths a day, mostly the older ones, who just couldn’t take it.” At the Santo Tomas camp, the military and civilian captives dubbed Bradley and the other imprisoned nurses who provided them with medical treatment “Angels in Fatigues.” The POWs subsisted mainly on rice–half a cup in the morning and half a cup at night–but Bradley shared her limited rations with the children. “I’d save part of my food for the children later in the day, when they started crying and being hungry,” she said. Bradley also learned to be “a pretty good thief. I would take food and put it in my pockets for the children,” she said.

By the time the camp was liberated by the Americans on Feb. 3, 1945, the formerly 110-pound Bradley had shrunk to 84 pounds. In February 1945, U.S. troops stormed the gates of the Japanese camp and liberated Bradley and her fellow prisoners, where she had been held captive for three years. Bradley continued serving in the Army Nurse Corps after her release and then in the Korean War. She dedicated 30 years to the military, becoming only the third woman in U.S. history to be promoted to the rank of colonel.

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I had an early morning CT scan appointment. The guy running the machine usually puts in the IV, but he didn’t like the look of my arm. He sent me to the nurse and two nurses and 3 pokes later I had a good IV.

After my appointment I met up with NIA ladies at Panera, then ran by the library and went home. The girls didn’t have school today, so they were watching TV. After lunch they went to the store and I took Jack for a Harriet hike at Ft. Logan National Cemetery.

Jack and I spent another hour at the dog park, where he found 2 people to throw a ball for him.