Mary McLeod Bethune 1875-1955
The daughter of former slaves, Mary Jane McLeod Bethune became one of the most important black educators, civil and women’s rights leaders and government officials of the twentieth century. The college she founded set educational standards for today’s black colleges, and her role as an advisor to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave African Americans an advocate in government.
Born on July 10, 1875 near Maysville, South Carolina, Bethune was one of the last of Samuel and Patsy McLeod’s seventeen children. After the Civil War, her mother worked for her former owner until she could buy the land on which the family grew cotton. By age nine, Bethune could pick 250 pounds of cotton a day.
Bethune benefited from efforts to educate African Americans after the war, graduating in 1894 from the Scotia Seminary, a boarding school in North Carolina. Bethune next attended Dwight Moody’s Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Chicago, Illinois. But with no church willing to sponsor her as a missionary, Bethune became an educator. While teaching in South Carolina, she married fellow teacher Albertus Bethune, with whom she had a son in 1899. In 1904 Bethune opened a boarding school, the Daytona Beach Literary and Industrial School for Training Negro Girls. Eventually, Bethune’s school became a college, merging with the all-male Cookman Institute to form Bethune-Cookman College in 1929. It issued its first degrees in 1943.
A champion of racial and gender equality, Bethune founded many organizations and led voter registration drives after women gained the vote in 1920, risking racist attacks. In 1924, she was elected president of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, and in 1935, she became the founding president of the National Council of Negro Women. A friend of Eleanor Roosevelt, in 1936, Bethune became the highest ranking African American woman in government when President Franklin Roosevelt named her director of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration, where she remained until 1944. She was also a leader of FDR’s unofficial “black cabinet.” In 1937 Bethune organized a conference on the Problems of the Negro and Negro Youth, and fought to end discrimination and lynching. In 1940, she became vice president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP), a position she held for the rest of her life. As a member of the advisory board that in 1942 created the Women’s Army Corps, Bethune ensured it was racially integrated. Appointed by President Harry S. Truman, Bethune was the only woman of color at the founding conference of the United Nations in 1945. She regularly wrote for the leading African American newspapers, the Pittsburgh Courier and the Chicago Defender.
Additionally, Bethune was a businesswoman who co-owned a Daytona, Florida resort and co-founded the Central Life Insurance Company of Tampa. In her “Last Will and Testament,” which was a penned reflection on her life, she wrote, “I leave you a thirst for education. Knowledge is the prime need of the hour.”
After school I took Jack with me to Castle Rock for shopping at the Emporium and a Harriet hike around the park. We found some dog cookies on one of the Christmas trees, WagnWash hosted the tree and gave away the cookies (great idea.)
At 5 we went over to King Soopers to host a food drive for a local food bank. One other family showed up to help. At first there was nothing in the basket, but after an hour the basket was full to the brim. We didn’t do as well the 2nd hour (5-6pm seems to be prime time.) One guy came out and put bag after bag in the basket, a Soopers worker gave us $3 and we bought some rice with that. I timed the date well because the food bank is only open on Tuesdays, so everything will get dropped off tomorrow.
Jacobs, a Mohawk recipient of the Harpo Foundation’s prestigious Native American Residency Fellowship, is one of the only artists on this list who works almost exclusively in one style: abstract metal sculpture. Her works are emotive and sharp, edged with knowledge and heavy with history — but they’re not violent or threatening.
She uses contemporary alloyed materials, including steel and pewter, to question how cultures adapt to the art world, Jacobs told Mic. This use of steel is particularly layered with meaning; it references not only strength and resistance, but the weight of culture and the famed Mohawk Ironworkers (Today, there are about 200 Mohawk ironworkers working in the New York area, out of 2,000 structural ironworkers, according to the union. Most still travel home to Canada on weekends. In 1949, New Yorker writer Joseph Mitchell described Mohawks as “the most footloose Indians,” “Virtually every skyscraper … has been built by Mohawk and other Iroquois ironworkers including the new Time Warner building…Rockefeller Center, Empire State building, Chrysler, all these skyscrapers, virtually all the bridges,” said Robert Venables, a historian and former Director of Cornell University’s American Indian studies program.)
When asked about the way her work reflects the relationship between Natives and the United States, Jacobs said, “There is such a complex relationship between Natives and the U.S. and I think that for survival we have to figure out how to adapt to a contemporary world without losing the essence of culture and meaning. This is one of the major ideas that I am exploring in my work.”
Things you can’t do on blood thinners.
-use a razor
-brush your teeth too hard
-say ‘Bloody hell! (unless you’re Australian)
-do dangerous things (ice skating, skiing, juggling knives)
-hike in places without cell service <—-I do this all the time, hey some places just can’t get a signal around here
-have surgery without contacting your special pharmacist
-get in an accident (really? That’s why they’re called ‘accidents’ not ‘on-purposes’)
-lie down for 30 minutes after you take the meds (I don’t know why about that one.)
-sit for too long, stand for too long
-eat kale (ok, that one I made up)
We did a bit of school then headed downtown to the Boettcher hall for the Colorado Symphony’s Beethoven’s birthday concert. It would be his 250th birthday and the concert had his music and some of his friends who might have attended his birthday bash. It was nice because we knew most of the music being played and we had great seats.
After the concert we went to Mango House to eat lunch. It’s a refugee assistance food hall/clinic/youth area/place to sell wares. We had sushi, African and Nepalese food and there were 2 or 3 more stalls that we didn’t try. It’s good food because it’s made by people from that country, the city set them up with a stall and Square (yay, credit!) I can’t wait to go back. We ran home, I dropped the girls off and went by the food bank and unloaded 20 bags of food. Then I made it to my doc appointment with 1 minute to spare. We went over general stuff, the CT scan, the meds and I now have a hematologist and medicine specialist added to my care team. They only thing that was blah was that if the DVT is not genetic, then it’s idiopathic (like my heart condition) and in that case I might be on blood thinners (pills not shots) for a long time. I dropped Hannah at Police Explorers (tonight’s topic – theft and robbery) and Jack and I did the rest of my Harriet hike at the park in Parker, in the dark.